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2 edition of Rainfall, surface sealing, runoff, and erosion on Jory soil series in western Oregon found in the catalog.

Rainfall, surface sealing, runoff, and erosion on Jory soil series in western Oregon

Joel Thomas King

Rainfall, surface sealing, runoff, and erosion on Jory soil series in western Oregon

  • 159 Want to read
  • 3 Currently reading

Published .
Written in English

    Subjects:
  • Soils -- Oregon.

  • Edition Notes

    Statementby Joel Thomas King.
    The Physical Object
    Pagination[10], 96 leaves, bound :
    Number of Pages96
    ID Numbers
    Open LibraryOL14229469M

    vegetation, exposing soils to rainfall. Agricultural land is especially present in the highland slope sides of Panama, increasing the severity of surface runoff and soil erosion. Additionally, when rainfall is high, water quality is usually very low due to increased sedimentation in water systems from erosion. Effects of soil erosion. Two mechanisms are involved with soil erosion on slopes: 1) detachment and 2) transport. Rainfall erosion begins with the impact ofa raindrop on the ground surface. The kinetic energy ofraindrop impact can dislodge and move soil particles, beginning the process of soil erosion. After rain falls on the ground surface, it becomes runoff The. 2) Climatic conditions influencing erosion include the amount, intensity, and frequency of rainfall, and hot and cold temperatures. For example, during periods of frequent rainfall there is a greater percentage of runoff. And, while frozen soil is highly resistant to erosion, rapidly thawing soil can lead to increased erosion. Chapter II-4 Watershed Soils, Erosion, and Conservation • 1 p S oil conditions, and the connections among soils throughout a watershed, play important roles in controlling how water moves into, over, and through the watershed. Water movement, in turn, affects both surface water and groundwater quality.


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EXCERPTS FROM LIFE

EXCERPTS FROM LIFE

Rainfall, surface sealing, runoff, and erosion on Jory soil series in western Oregon by Joel Thomas King Download PDF EPUB FB2

RAINFALL, SURFACE SEALING, RUNOFF, AND EROSION ON JORY SOIL SERIES IN WESTERN OREGON I. INTRODUCTION Cropland runoff carries significant pollution to our nation's waterways. The United States has an estimated million acres of cropland which produce 40 to 50 percent of the calculated four billion tons of sediment transported in rivers.

Rainfall, surface sealing, runoff, and erosion on Jory soil series in western Oregon Public Deposited. Analytics × Add Author: Joel Thomas King. Download PDF: Sorry, we are unable to provide the full text but you may find it at the following location(s): (external link).

Soil erosion under different rainfall intensities, water pressure might also have opposing effects on the processes of surface sealing, runoff generation and sediment production.

On one hand, a low soil water content, and water pressure monitored the soil water pressure regime in the soil bed, while a series ofCited by:   Each point is a mean of all the simulations. Overland flow response was most rapid for cutslope, as runoff began in s.

On sidecast fill and roadbed, surface runoff commenced and s after the start of the simulated rainfall. The surface runoff curves are logarithmic. Fig. 2 shows a fast rise during the first few minutes.

Shortly Cited by:   Before applying the model, the soil infiltration, runoff, and erosion parameters are calibrated using the experimental data of the first rainfall, which are Rainfall in Table should be noted that, due to the soil surface sealing, the soil saturated hydraulic conductivity of top layer ( cm in thickness) soil K 1s is different for the three successive rainfalls (Shen et al., ).

Soil Percolation Infiltration Surface runoff E v a p o r a t i o n f r m v e g t a t i o n f r o m s t r e a m s Evaporation.

Part National Engineering Handbook Estimation of Direct Runoff from using the relationship among rainfall, runoff, and retention (the rain not converted into runoff) given by F S Q P = [10–2] (VI-NEH, July.

Experimental design. A total of 18 erosion plots (* m 2) were placed on rangeland hillslopes with a mean slope of 18–23°.In each NW, S, W and East facing slope three erosion plots were installed except for a north facing slope with 6 plots ().To prevent runoff from adjacent areas, galvanized steel plates were buried 10–15 cm deep in the ground around the perimeter of each plot.

The generation of surface runoff and transport of sediment were studied on unpaved forest roads in the Iberian Range (Spain). To this end, a mobile rainfall simulator was used so that information could be compared.

Twenty-eight rainfall simulations were carried out on the cutslope (12), sidecast fill. A rain garden is a heavily planted landscaped depression situated in the path of runoff flow, with permeable soil.

During storms, runoff will pool surface sealing the surface of the rain garden and soak into the soil, filtering the water and recharging groundwater. The proper functioning of a rain garden depends on the permeability of the natural soil.

The process of surface erosion is shown in Figure 6, Figure 7, Figure 8. It was observed that the soil was eroded by the surface runoff formed on the slope. Several channels were formed as the rainwater flushed the soil, which eventually grew to become gullies.

With the slope angle increasing, the erosion caused by surface runoff became more. In this study, the results of a series of experiments are reported, summarizing the soil loss and runoff response from a × m area to different rainstorm regimes, slope steepnesses, subsurface soil water pressures, and surface roughnesses under controlled laboratory conditions using a flume and rainfall simulator as water applicators.

Environment Agency thinksoils factors that influence erosion and runoff / soil surface roughness Factors that influence erosion and runoff 13 Soil surface roughness 3 Ploughed land provides surface storage of rainwater soil surface roughness Soil surface roughness Rough surfaces (e.g.

in ploughed land, coarse seedbeds, or pressed land with. throughout the year with a soil erosion rate of Mg/km2 in the area [3]. Slope and rainfall intensities are important factors influencing the erosion processes [4,5].

The mobilization of soil particles during rain-splash erosion depends on rainfall intensity [6]. In contrast, the mobilization of solid particles is the result of overland flow. 10 Ways to Control Erosion and Runoff. The emphasis you need to place on erosion and runoff when designing your landscape depends on the particular features of your yard.

For example, if your backyard gently slopes away from your home, you may be able to use simple, affordable landscaping options to prevent excessive erosion, but if you have a steep incline in your backyard, you may need more.

Runoff, erosion and sedimentation: prediction and measurement. RUNOFF. Runoff forms. There are two situations when runoff will occur. If the intensity of rainfall exceeds the infiltration rate at the ground surface, ponding will lead to surface flow. Previous studies have recognized that the rainfall patterns greatly affect the runoff generation and soil erosion processes (e.g., [8,9]).Parsons and Stone [] adopted five rainfalls with different patterns but the same total kinetic energy to the soil found that the soil erosion amount under a constant-intensity storm are reduced by about 25% compared to varied-intensity storms.

RUNOFF PLOTS have long been used in soil erosion re-search to evaluate various cropping and management systems on different soils under natural rainfall. Ten to 20 years of measurements have been required to obtain repre-sentative sampling of natural rainstorms to fully evaluate treatment effects.

Natural-rainfall runoff plots have been. To determine the effect of different rainfall energy levels on the breakdown of soil aggregates, this study analyzed the soil splash erosion amounts and the distribution of particle sizes under six rainfall conditions (rainfall energy: × 10 −5 – × 10 −5 J m −2 s.

Look at the pattern of surface runoff and the placement of buffer strips on the field when directing surface runoff and minimizing sediment transport. Examine your choice of tillage and compare it to other fields in the area, to evaluate the degree of damage caused by soil erosion in each conservation system.

Longzhou Deng, Tianyu Sun, Kai Fei, Liping Zhang, Xiaojuan Fan, Yanhong Wu, Liang Ni, Effects of erosion degree, rainfall intensity and slope gradient on runoff and sediment yield for the bare soils from the weathered granite slopes of SE China, Geomorphology, /ph, (), ().

Contaminant inserting surface waters during rain that is lead to contaminate runoff. Daily people activities appear in sediment of pollutants on parking lots, farm fields, driveways, roads, lawns, roofs. As soon as precipitation begins, water flow off and eventually makes its way to a lake, ocean, and river.

Runoff and erosion occur because soil porosity has been damaged, whether at or below the surface of the soil.

They are the consequences, not primary causes of land degradation. In many instances tillage aimed at loosening the soil to let in more rainwater can also result in soil collapse, which then leads to increased erosion and loss of.

Whereas there was no significant effect of raindrop temperature on the dry soil, the soil that was pre‐moistened to field capacity was affected by rainwater temperature: runoff and erosion were high when the temperature difference between rainfall and soil surface was high, and sediment yields were 139, 52, and 183 g m −2 per 40 mm of.

To examine 1) rainfall pattern (i.e., type and intensity) regulating surface erosion on hillslopes in postwildfire area and 2) its effect on variation in sediment yield along the gradient of. Modeling response of soil erosion and runoff to changes in precipitation and cover M.A.

Nearinga predicted that for every 1% increase in total rainfall, erosion rate would increase only by Even changes in soil surface conditions, such as surface roughness, sealing, and crusting, may change with shifts in climate, hence impacting erosion. High surface runoff and accelerated soil erosion are major degradative problems on newly cleared land.

Immediately implementing appropriate erosion management techniques is therefore, essential. Accelerated erosion can be most severe in the very first season after land clearing (Lal, a).

Surface runoff and soil erosion on. western Oregon. Water Resour ces Research Six factors, including rainfall, runoff, soil, topography, vegetation and tillage system, are. Rainfall entry into the soil depends on the porosity of the soil at any scale, while management of runoff and erosion across the surface also depends on any physical works that may be constructed when rainfall rates exceed even the best infiltration rate (Figure 5).

FIGURE 5. A nested hierarchy of interrelated constructed and natural catchments. Making artificial rainfall.

Water pressure for spraying nozzles. PRACTICAL CONSIDERATIONS. OPERATION. Chapter 7 Estimating from models. ESTIMATING RUNOFF.

Maximum runoff rates. Runoff quantity, or yield. ESTIMATING SOIL LOSS. Empirical models for estimating soil loss. Erosion parameters. References Further reading. Table 2. Effectiveness of various groundcovers in reducing runoff and soil erosion for a single simulated rain event ( in/h) at University of Maryland’s turf grass research facility1 (adapted from Brady and Weil, ).

Material Soil loss2 (tons/acre) % of Rainfall Runoff % Ground Cover Established3 Bare soil with partial cover 83 The effects of rainfall intensity and slope gradient on runoff, soil loss and rill development were different for the two soils. The runoff and soil loss from the Anthrosol surface were generally higher than those from the Calcaric Cambisol surface.

Higher rainfall intensity produced less runoff and more sediment for almost each treatment. Soil erosion - three phase phenomena * Detachment * Transportation By wind, H 2O and gravity * Deposition 3.

Action of wind and water 4. Two forms of energy Potential energy PE = mgh (head) Force N = kgm / sec2 Nm/sec = watt = kg m2 mgh = sec2 2. Kinetic energy ½ mv2 5. Factors affecting soil erosion * Rainfall * Runoff * Wind * Soil.

Localized contribution of runoff. Erosion control therefore takes a different form depending on the origin of runoff. If, as in the first case, runoff is a result of degradation of the soil surface, erosion control will primarily entail protecting this soil surface through plant.

Figure shows the reduction in rainfall infiltration into the soil as paved surface and building cover increases. Table shows a range of runoff coefficients for different land uses. The runoff coefficient, or “C” value in the Rational Method of determining runoff, is the percentage of rainfall runoff.

Surface runoff (also known as overland flow) is the flow of water occurring on the ground surface when excess rainwater, stormwater, meltwater, or other sources, can no longer sufficiently rapidly infiltrate in the can occur when the soil is saturated by water to its full capacity, and that the rain arrives more quickly than the soil can absorb it.

Compared to a bare soil surface rock fragments increase water intake rates as well as time of runoff concentration and decrease runoff volume if they rest on the soil surface. For the same cover level, rock fragments reduce infiltration rate and enhance runoff generation if they are well embedded in.

Rainfall-Runoff Erosivity Factor (R) Brown and Foster () used a unit energy relationship of the form e = emax [1 a exp (-b-i)] [ where emax = a maximum unit energy as intensity approaches infinity, and a and b = coefficients.

Kinnell (, ) showed that this distribution described unit energy. the surface of the soil, except at one end where the iron was turned 1 Received for publication Jan. 19, issued October, Contribution No.

Department of Agron- omy, Kansas Agricultural Experiment Station. 2 DULEY, F. L., and MILLER, M. EROSION AND SURFACE RUNOFF UNDER DIFFERENT SOIL CONDITIONS.

heterogeneous underlying surface. However, little research on the rainfall-runoff processes has been conducted in the semi-arid regions of northern China, where the rainfall-runoff data on a natural slope is very difficult to observe for the study of runoff generation [12].

Furthermore, other than surface runoff. This study dealt with the extent and dynamics of a thin zone of soil that interacts with rainfall and overland flow in releasing soil chemicals to runoff.

A relatively immobile tracer, 32 P, was applied at (soil surface),or cm depths in duplicate soil boxes of three different soils.The liquid–air surface tension of an aqueous ethanol concentration series that enters the soil in approximately 5 s is identified as the ninety degree (ND) surface tension, g ND, of the soil.Important in the design of erosion control structures ›Terraces, grass water ways, etc.

Rational equation is a simple equation for determining peak discharge Only useful for watersheds that are acres or smaller in size ›q= peak runoff rate (ft 3/s or m /s) ›C=Runoff coefficient dimensionless ›I=rainfall .